EFFETTI DEI POLIFENOLI DEL CAFFÈ

EFFETTI DEI POLIFENOLI DEL CAFFÈ

Tratto da un articolo di Massimo Spattini

 

Bere caffè, magari più volte al giorno, oppure astenersi per evitare tachicardia, ed eccessiva stimolazione nervosa?

Fa bene, oppure fa male?

Sappiamo che esistono individui con alta oppure bassa metabolizzazione della caffeina, dovuta a specifici polimorfismi genetici, e c’è chi si ferma ad una tazza e chi ne consuma anche più di 6-7 al giorno, costantemente e a tutte le ore.

Uno studio di un paio di anni fa, molto corposo, ha voluto indagare l’associazione tra consumo di caffè e mortalità per tutte le cause.

La UK Biobank ha invitato 9,2 milioni di inglesi a partecipare alla ricerca, raccogliendo infine una notevole mole di dati (età, razza, indice di massa corporea, attività fisica, scolarità, consumo di alcolici o sigarette) fra coloro (502641) che avevano acconsentito a fornirli in toto.

L’età media degli individui era di 57 anni (intervallo 38-73 anni); 271019 (54%) erano donne e 387494 (78%) erano bevitori di caffè.

In 10 anni di follow-up, si sono verificati 14225 decessi.

L’analisi dei dati statistici ha riportato che bere caffè era inversamente associato alla mortalità per tutte le cause e la modalità di preparazione e la presenza o meno di caffeina erano ininfluenti, quindi questo beneficio probabilmente era dovuto all’effetto dei polifenoli contenuti nel caffè.

Questa protezione aumenterebbe proporzionalmente alle tazzine di caffè consumate giornalmente, con un minimo dell’8% (1 tazzina), fino ad un massimo del 16% (7 tazzine).

Conclusioni: che sia preparato con la moka, che sia espresso, macinato, filtrato o istantaneo (quest’ultimo leggermente meno protettivo), il consumo di caffè è stato inversamente associato alla mortalità, anche tra coloro che ne bevono 8 o più tazze al giorno e quelli con polimorfismi genetici che indicano un metabolismo della caffeina più lento o più veloce.

Questi risultati suggeriscono l’importanza dei componenti polifenolici (non la caffeina) come effetti protettivi nei confronti della mortalità per tutte le cause e forniscono ulteriori rassicurazioni sul fatto che bere caffè può entrare a far parte di una dieta sana e ben congegnata.

 

 

Fonte: Erikka Loftfield, et al., “Association of Coffee Drinking With Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism: Findings From the UK Biobank”. Multicenter Study. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Aug 1;178(8):1086-1097.

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